Canadian Occupational Safety

More boards presuming PTSD caused by work – Canadian Occupational Safety

On April 5, Ontario changed its workers’ compensation system to presume that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is work-related for individuals in specific occupations. Those occupations include first responders, such as firefighters, paramedics, police officers and emergency medical attendants, as well as certain workers in correctional institutions and secure youth justice facilities. Ontario joins Alberta whose legislation contains a similar presumption and Manitoba whose legislation came into effect Jan.1 but is not limited to a specific occupation. On April 1, New Brunswick’s labour minister introduced a similar bill in the legislature signalling that it will likely move in the same direction.


Mental Health Commission of Canada Webinars for First Responders: Suicide Awareness and Prevention

Mental Health Commission of Canada Webinars for First Responders: Suicide Awareness and Prevention is the first webinar in a series of free webinars related to Mental Health for First Responders.

Join to learn about innovative and effective approaches to suicide prevention.  The guest speaker will provide an overview of the trends and evidence around suicide and first responders. You will get to learn about how education, awareness and training can help increase help-seeking behaviours and build suicide prevention capacity within first responder organizations and the larger community.

PubMed logo

Therapeutic Effects of Extinction Learning as a Model of Exposure Therapy in Rats

Current treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as depression and PTSD, are inadequate. Cognitive behavioral psychotherapies, including exposure therapy, are an alternative to pharmacotherapy, but the neurobiological mechanisms are unknown. Preclinical models demonstrating therapeutic effects of behavioral interventions are required to investigate such mechanisms. Exposure therapy bears similarity to extinction learning. Thus, we investigated the therapeutic effects of extinction learning as a behavioral intervention to model exposure therapy in rats, testing its effectiveness in reversing chronic stress-induced deficits in cognitive flexibility and coping behavior that resemble dimensions of depression and PTSD.

Journal of Traumatic Stress

The Role of Posttraumatic Growth in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive–Behavioral Conjoint Therapy for PTSD

Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is defined as a positive psychological change that can emerge following a traumatic life event. Although documented in noninterventional studies of traumatized individuals, there are scant data on the potential for therapy to induce or improve PTG. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to examine changes in PTG in a controlled trial of cognitive–behavioral conjoint therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder versus waitlist (CBCT for PTSD; Monson & Fredman, 2012).

Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease logo

Gender and Age Differences in Trauma and PTSD Among Dutch Treatment-Seeking Police Officers.

Little is known about how age and gender are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and traumatic experiences in treatment-seeking police offers. In this study, we examined 967 diagnostic files of police officers seeking treatment for PTSD.

complementary and alternative medicine for PTSD

Family-Focused Interventions for PTSD

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been shown to have a variety of negative health and mental health effects on those who are afflicted (Kessler et al., 2000), as well as negative effects on relationships with intimate partners and close relatives (Whisman, Sheldon, & Goering, 2000). Families are likely to be impacted by the specific nature of the sustained trauma.

complementary and alternative medicine for PTSD

Recreational Therapy for PTSD

There are currently several interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that meet the definition of “evidence-based therapies” as outlined by the Institute of Medicine (2012). The current chapter examines one such group of interventions: recreational therapy. Recreational therapy refers to treatments designed to help restore prior levels of functioning resulting from injury or illness, or to promote health and wellness.

complementary and alternative medicine for PTSD

Toward a More Comprehensive Approach to the Management of PTSD

In this volume, after a brief discussion of phenomenology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the current guidelines and clinical consensus surrounding treatment, and the limitations of available treatment supported by sufficient evidence necessary to receive endorsement in practice guidelines, we describe emerging treatments that demonstrate varying degrees of promise for relieving the suffering associated with PTSD.

complementary and alternative medicine for PTSD

Resilience Training as a Complementary Treatment for PTSD

Other definitions focus on resilience as a trait (eg, hardiness [Maddi, 2005]) or as an outcome trajectory, such as when individuals respond to a specific traumatic event without symptoms or with symptoms that dissipate quickly (Bonanno, Rennicke, & Dekel, 2005).

complementary and alternative medicine for PTSD

Canines as Assistive Therapy for Treatment of PTSD

Canine-assisted therapies are being used increasingly both by veterans and the civilian community for mental and emotional support. During the past decade, a growing body of scientific research has provided evidence that human–animal interactions can improve social competence and reduce physiological, psychological, and behavioral effects of stress and social isolation.

complementary and alternative medicine for PTSD

Complementary and Alternative Medicine for PTSD

Recognizing the increasing need for more consolidated information on Complementary Alternative Medicine for the treatment of PTSD, Doctors Benedek and Wynn have contributed a ground-breaking and invaluable textbook for scholars and practitioners alike.

complementary and alternative medicine for PTSD

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for PTSD

Expert treatment guidelines and consensus statements identified imaginal exposure therapy as a first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) more than a decade ago (Ballenger et al. 2000; Foa et al. 1999; Rothbaum et al. 2000b).

Journal of Clinical Psychology

Journal of Clinical Psychology - Clinical Shame, Dissociation, and Complex PTSD Symptoms in Traumatized Psychiatric and Control Groups: Direct and Indirect Associations With Relationship Distress

Elevated shame and dissociation are common in dissociative identity disorder (DID) and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are part of the constellation of symptoms defined as complex PTSD. Previous work examined the relationship between shame, dissociation, and complex PTSD and whether they are associated with intimate relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. This study investigated these variables in traumatized clinical samples and a nonclinical community group.

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PubMed - Be vigilant for post-traumatic stress reactions

Most people experience at least one potentially traumatic event (PTE) during their life. Many will develop only transient distress and not a psychological illness. Even the most inherently horrific event does not invariably lead to the development of a psychological disorder while an individual with sufficient vulnerability may develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after what appears be an event of low magnitude. The diagnosis of PTSD differs fro most psychiatric disorders as it includes an aetiological factor, the traumatic event, as a core criterion. The DSM 5 core symptoms of PTSD are grouped into four key symptom clusters: re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and arousal. Symptoms must be present for at least one month and cause functional impairment. PTSD patients can avoid engaging in treatment and assertive follow-up may be necessary.

journal of contextual behavioral science

Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science - Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Co-Occurring PTSD and Substance Use: A Manual Development Study

We developed an ACT-based manual to treat comorbid PTSD and substance use. A pilot trial with veterans suggested the treatment was feasible and credible. Participants were generally satisfied and offered qualitative feedback. We describe manual revisions aimed at improving treatment retention and impact. Additional strategies for adapting ACT for PTSD/SUD are offered for consideration

Kent University

Kent State University - The Incremental Impact of Trauma-Related Nightmares on PTSD Symptom Severity

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often develops following trauma exposure. Sleep disturbances, especially nightmares, are highly comorbid with PTSD and may exacerbate symptoms. The current study examined the relationship between sleep disturbances and PTSD among college students. Results indicated that PTSD-related sleep disturbances, most notably trauma-related nightmares, were associated with PTSD.

Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment

Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment - The Underlying Role of Negative Affect in the Association between PTSD, Major Depressive Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Clinicians and researchers have found differential diagnosis to be difficult, particularly for conceptually similar disorders. One category of particular interest has been distress or internalizing disorders, theorized to be related via an underlying construct of generalized distress or negative affect. The present study attempted to address the comorbidity of three distress disorders – posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) – using latent analyses by controlling for the variance attributable to negative affect.

Stress in Policing

Stress in Policing - Policing Disasters, A Conceptual Model and Case Study of Police Resilience

This chapter consists of two sections. Section 1, by John Violanti, describes a case study of resiliency factors among police officers involved in Hurricane Katrina six years post-storm. Section 2, by Douglas Paton, describes (1) developing a model that facilitates learning from experience, (2) anticipating future issues and (3) proactively developing resilience and adaptive capacity in police officers and organizations.

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PubMed - A prospective study of pre-trauma risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression.

It is unclear which potentially modifiable risk factors best predict post-trauma psychiatric disorders. We aimed to identify pre-trauma risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depression (MD) that could be targeted with resilience interventions. Method Newly recruited paramedics (n = 453) were assessed for history of mental disorders with structured clinical interviews within the first week of their paramedic training and completed self-report measures to assess hypothesized predictors. Participants were assessed every 4 months for 2 years to identify any episodes of PTSD and MD; 386 paramedics (85.2%) participated in the follow-up interviews.

Experimental Neurology

Experimental Neurology - Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A translational update

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma-evoked syndrome, with variable prevalence within the human population due to individual differences in coping and resiliency. In this review, we discuss evidence supporting the relevance of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a stress regulatory transmitter in PTSD. We consolidate findings from preclinical, clinical, and translational studies of NPY that are of relevance to PTSD with an attempt to provide a current update of this area of research.

Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality

Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality - Olfactory Stimuli Increase Presence During Simulated Exposure

Exposure therapy (EXP) is an extensively studied and supported treatment for anxiety and trauma-related disorders. EXP works by exposing the patient to the feared object or situation in the absence of danger in order to overcome the related anxiety. Various technologies including head-mounted displays (HMDs), scent machines, and headphones have been used to augment the exposure therapy process by presenting multi-sensory cues (e.g., sights, smells, sounds) to increase the patient’s sense of presence.

European Journal of PsychoTraumatology

European Journal of Psychotraumatology: Erasing Memory Traces of Trauma with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy (EMDR) is by now a well-established treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is good evidence for its efficacy and together with trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) it is considered to be the first-line treatment for PTSD (Bisson, Roberts, Andrew, Cooper, & Lewis, 2013).

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Science Daily - Early screening spots emergency workers at greater risk of mental illness

Emergency services workers who are more likely to suffer episodes of mental ill health later in their careers can be spotted in the first week of training. Researchers wanted to see if they could identify risk factors that made people more likely to suffer post-traumatic stress (PTSD) or major depression (MD) when working in emergency services.