Clinicians and researchers have found differential diagnosis to be difficult, particularly for conceptually similar disorders. One category of particular interest has been distress or internalizing disorders, theorized to be related via an underlying construct of generalized distress or negative affect. The present study attempted to address the comorbidity of three distress disorders – posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) – using latent analyses by controlling for the variance attributable to negative affect.
This chapter consists of two sections. Section 1, by John Violanti, describes a case study of resiliency factors among police officers involved in Hurricane Katrina six years post-storm. Section 2, by Douglas Paton, describes (1) developing a model that facilitates learning from experience, (2) anticipating future issues and (3) proactively developing resilience and adaptive capacity in police officers and organizations.
It is unclear which potentially modifiable risk factors best predict post-trauma psychiatric disorders. We aimed to identify pre-trauma risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depression (MD) that could be targeted with resilience interventions. Method Newly recruited paramedics (n = 453) were assessed for history of mental disorders with structured clinical interviews within the first week of their paramedic training and completed self-report measures to assess hypothesized predictors. Participants were assessed every 4 months for 2 years to identify any episodes of PTSD and MD; 386 paramedics (85.2%) participated in the follow-up interviews.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma-evoked syndrome, with variable prevalence within the human population due to individual differences in coping and resiliency. In this review, we discuss evidence supporting the relevance of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a stress regulatory transmitter in PTSD. We consolidate findings from preclinical, clinical, and translational studies of NPY that are of relevance to PTSD with an attempt to provide a current update of this area of research.
Exposure therapy (EXP) is an extensively studied and supported treatment for anxiety and trauma-related disorders. EXP works by exposing the patient to the feared object or situation in the absence of danger in order to overcome the related anxiety. Various technologies including head-mounted displays (HMDs), scent machines, and headphones have been used to augment the exposure therapy process by presenting multi-sensory cues (e.g., sights, smells, sounds) to increase the patient’s sense of presence.
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy (EMDR) is by now a well-established treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is good evidence for its efficacy and together with trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) it is considered to be the first-line treatment for PTSD (Bisson, Roberts, Andrew, Cooper, & Lewis, 2013).